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Light Environment and Light Cultural Analysis of Landscape Lighting Engineering Design
- Jan 05, 2018 -

Light Environment and Light Cultural Analysis of Landscape Lighting Engineering Design

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Landscape lighting design not only through the use of light to express the theme of the landscape itself, more importantly, to make it harmonious into the living environment, so that experience to feel the pleasure and enjoyment of the spirit. Therefore, "human" is the basis of landscape lighting, as a starting point, through the use of different combinations of technical means to achieve landscape lighting, "humane" purposes.


Light and human relations


People get external information through the senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, etc., and get to know the world around them. It is reported that 80% of human information is obtained through visual channels. Vision is the perception of the outside world gained by the sensation of light generated by the radiation entering the human eye. Vision is not a fleeting moment, its processes and characteristics are more complex, so far there are some areas we are not aware of. The process of visual experience is formed by close cooperation between the brain and the eye.


The human visual system is similar to the image recognition system and mainly consists of three parts: the eye muscle, the optical system of the eye and the optic nerve system. The eye moves under the effect of the eye muscle and captures light. The light passes through the eye's optical system to concentrate the light on the retina and transmit it to the optic nerve via bioelectrochemical action, eventually transmitting to the brain, producing light perception or producing vision.


The main optical process that occurs when light passes through the eye is that when the visible radiation having a wavelength of 380 nm to 780 nm enters the outer transparent protective film of the eye and refracts, light enters the pupil from the cornea, and the amount of light entering is automatically obtained through the contraction or expansion of the pupil adjust. Light through the pupil and lens, the lens and transparent vitreous humor will gather light in the retina, the human eye structure diagram shown in Figure 1.


Figure 1 human eye structure diagram


Lighting is to provide light for the visual environment, lighting technology is bound to be associated with the light perception. This includes branches for lighting testing, lighting evaluation, lighting design and lighting planning. Therefore, lighting is an interdisciplinary subject, and it has some connection with physics, physiology, psychology, architecture, aesthetics, economics and environmental science. The relationship between light and human is also relatively close, except in the visual, at the same time in the physical, psychological, and lighting in the history of the progress of human civilization have a close relationship.


Light-related lighting parameters


Light intensity, luminous flux and luminous efficiency


The most basic unit of photometry is the luminous intensity, denoted by I, in Candela and cd, which is one of the seven basic units of the International System of Units. It is defined as the emission of monochromatic radiation of a frequency of 540 x 1012 Hz (corresponding to a wavelength of 555 nm in air) at a luminous intensity of (1/683) W / sr in a given direction, the luminous intensity of the light source in that direction 1cd, luminous flux and light intensity diagram shown in Figure 2.


The amount of light emitted by a light source in a unit of time is called the luminous flux of a light source, expressed in Φ, in lm. A light source in all directions are 1cd light intensity, the total flux of radiation that is 4πlm. It is a photometric quantity derived from the effect of radiation on a standard observer. For the bright vision, if the radiation flux of the radiator is Φe (λ), its luminous flux Φ is expressed as



In the formula, Km is the maximum value of the spectral light (visual) performance of the radiation in lumens per watt (lm / W), and under monochromatic radiation, the Km under the visual condition is 683 lm / W 555nm); V (λ) is the spectral light (efficiency); P (λ) is the spectral power distribution function of the radiator; Φ is the luminous flux (lm, 1lm = 1cd · 1sr).



Figure 2 luminous flux and light intensity diagram


Luminous efficiency, referred to as light efficiency, is a measure of the main indicators of energy-saving light source, expressed with η. Luminous efficiency is the ratio of the luminous flux output to the input power of a light source. It indicates the efficiency of electrical energy conversion into light energy, which is the luminous flux emitted by a light source consuming 1 W of electrical energy. The unit of luminous efficacy is lm / W (lm / W). Light efficiency varies widely, from incandescent lamp above 10lm / W to low pressure sodium lamp 200lm / W or more. According to the definition of luminous flux, in theory, the maximum luminous efficiency of the light source can reach 683lm / W.


Illumination and brightness


There are many lighting parameters to measure the light environment, the most intuitive is the illumination and brightness. Illuminance (referred to as illumination) is the characterization of the illuminated object is the amount of the surface is illuminated, denoted by E, unit lux (lx), 1lx = 1lm / m2. It represents the flux of light received per unit surface. Such as the tiny area dA by the flux of dΦ, then the illumination of the illuminated surface is



The unit of illumination uses footcandles (fc) in North America except lx, and 1fc = 10.76 lx.


The light intensity (referred to as brightness) L (j, θ) of the light source in a certain direction is the luminous flux emitted by the unit projection surface of the light source in the unit direction in the unit solid angle. The symbol of brightness is L, in candelas per square meter (cd / m2 = lm / m2 · sr). For example, the luminous flux dΦ (j, θ) within a small area dA and a small solid angle dω, the brightness is:


 


In the formula,


D2Φ (j, θ) - the luminous flux transmitted by the beam element passing through a given point and containing the solid angle dω propagating in a given direction;


DA - radiation beam cross-sectional area including a given point;


Θ - the angle between the radiation beam cross-sectional area and the direction of the radiation beam, the international unit of luminance Candela per square meter (cd / m2), the formation of luminous flux as shown in Figure 3.


 



Figure 1-3 Luminous flux, light intensity, illumination, brightness of the relationship between the schematic


Figure 3 the formation of luminous flux diagram


Color temperature and related color temperature


The spectral energy distribution from the light source and the color introduced into the color temperature indicate the amount of color of the light source. When the color of the light emitted by the light source is the same as the color radiated by the black body at a certain temperature, the temperature of the black body is referred to as the color temperature Tc of the light source (abbreviated as color temperature (CT)).


For some light sources (mainly high-intensity gas discharge light source), the color of light emitted by it is not exactly the same as that of black body radiation at various temperatures. At this time, it can not be described by the general color temperature concept s color. For the sake of comparison, the concept of correlated color temperature is adopted. If the light emitted by the light source and the color of the light radiated by the blackbody at a certain temperature are the closest, the temperature of the blackbody is referred to as the correlated color temperature (CCT) of the light source. Obviously, due to the different spectral forms, the correlated color temperature is used to indicate that the color is relatively rough, but to a certain extent, the light source which reflects the white light source color difference. Energy-saving lamps usually refer to the color temperature refers to the concept of related color temperature. The various colors of light color temperature value shown in Figure 4.



Figure 4 various light color temperature values


Generally speaking, the higher the color temperature of the light source, the more the light color is blue, the more short-wave components are contained in the spectrum, the lower the color temperature of the light source is, and the more the light color is red, the longer the wavelength component is contained in the spectrum. Common types of light color more, the color temperature values are also different (Figure 5).



Figure 5 common light source color temperature values


Color chart and color rendering


According to the CIE publication "Colorimetry" and our national standard GB5698 "Color Terms", color is an attribute of visual perception that can be used in white, black, gray, yellow, red, green, etc. Color name to describe. Light color refers to the color of the light emitted by the light source. The object color is the color of light reflected or transmitted by the object. Surface color is diffuse, opaque surface color.


As a lighting source, in addition to requiring high luminous efficiency, but also require it to emit light with good color. Light color has two meanings: color table and color. When the human eye directly observe the light source to see the color, known as the light source color table. Color coordinates, color temperature is to describe the amount of color table. The light source color table is determined by the light source spectral energy distribution ratio.


Different spectral energy distribution ratio, there is a different color table. The ratio of the spectral energy distribution of the light source is closer to the spectral energy distribution ratio of the sunlight, and the color table of the light source is better. On the contrary, it is worse. Good and bad measure light color table is based on the sun as the standard. The color of the surface of the light source, the closer the color of the sunlight, the color table of the light source is good; on the contrary, the difference is poor. For example, the surface of high-pressure sodium lamp yellow orange, color and sunlight vary greatly, the color table is poor. High pressure mercury lamp surface color difference with the sun is smaller, the color table is better than high pressure sodium lamp. Energy-saving lamps spectral energy distribution ratio, and solar spectral energy distribution ratio close. Energy-saving lamp surface color, close to the color of sunlight, lighting, bright, comfortable.


The color rendering refers to the light source to light the object produced by the objective effect. If the colored objects after exposure to the color effect and the same standard light irradiation, then that the light color rendering is good; the other hand, if the subject after the color distortion, the light color rendering poor. The impact of lighting on the color chart of the object is called the color rendering, usually with the general color rendering index Ra, Ra between 75-100 for high-quality color light source, 50-75 for the medium, 50 for the poor.


Incandescent color rendering is good and low pressure sodium lamp color is poor. Incandescent light can really reproduce the color of the object, while the low-pressure sodium lamp is like a magical blue paper to black. Why does blue paper darken when exposed to low-pressure sodium lamp? To understand this problem, we must first make an analysis of sunlight. The original sunlight is red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple and other colors of light mixed in accordance with a certain percentage. Sunlight strikes a colored object (referred to as an opaque body) that absorbs the light of other colors and reflects the light of that color. For example, when blue paper is exposed to sunlight, the blue light is reflected and the other light is absorbed, so that the paper seen in the human eye is blue. Low-pressure sodium lamp is not. Low pressure sodium lamp light is mainly yellow. When the yellow light shines on the blue paper, the blue paper absorbs all the yellow light. Although blue paper can reflect blue light, but because there is basically no blue light emitted by the low-pressure sodium lamp, it can not reflect the blue light.


As a result, the blue paper turns black in the low-pressure sodium lamp. Incandescent lamp spectral energy distribution is continuous, all kinds of colors of light are, so the general color can react, have better color rendering. Table 1 shows the color rendering index of several representative light sources.



Table 1 several kinds of light color rendering index


The visual state of the human eye under different light conditions


When the brightness of the ambient brightness changes, the visual state of the human eye also changes. In bright environments with a brightness greater than 5 cd / m2, the pupil of the human eye is smaller, with the vision originating from the center of the retina (central vision) where the pyramidal cells provide visual information, the human eye can discern the details of the object, and also the colored Feeling, called bright vision. When the brightness is less than 0.005cd / m2, to see the target, the pupil must be enlarged, the center of vision into peripheral vision, at this time mainly by the rod cells play a role, although you can see the approximate shape of the object, but can not distinguish the details, but also Can not distinguish the color, all objects are blue-gray, this is dark vision. At the same time, the visual state between the bright vision and the dark vision under the brightness environment is called the intermediate vision, and the car driver is in such a state of vision when driving in the suburbs at night.


We use the spectral light-efficiency function to evaluate the human eye's sensitivity to spectra in different visual states. In the bright state of vision, the human eye has the highest sensitivity to green light, while the sensitivity to red and violet light is much lower. That is to say, the same energy of green and red (or purple), the former in the human eye caused by the visual intensity is much larger than the latter, in other words, the spectral efficiency of green light spectrum is higher than the red (or purple).


The results show that the human eye in the bright state of vision, the spectral peak light efficiency at 555nm. V (λ), the maximum of which is at 555 nm, is usually in the category of bright vision. Therefore, V (λ) can also be generally referred to as spectral light Efficiency function. The corresponding V '(λ) is the photopic efficiency of dark-visual spectrum as a function of its maximum at 507 nm. Under dark vision conditions, blue-violet light will more arouse the visual perception of the human eye. The light spectrum efficiency of light under bright vision and dark vision is shown in Fig.6.



Fig.6 Spectral light-processing efficiency function in both light and dark vision


As mentioned above, there is also intermediate vision in the vision of dark vision transition. And with the decline of ambient light environment, the maximum spectral response of 555nm yellow-green light gradually moves toward the blue-purple light until reaching the maximum spectral response of dark vision of 507nm (as shown in Figure 7).



Figure 7 From left to right from dark to light, different brightness spectrum light efficiency curve


Log (l) represents the logarithm of brightness


Light on the human psychological and physiological effects


With the continuous improvement of the quality of life, the lighting requirements of people have long passed the initial stage of lighting for lighting, began to pay more attention to the lighting on the environment and its psychological and physiological impact. Therefore, we must study the influence of light on the human body from the perspective of physiology and psychology.


The third human photoreceptor cells


It has long been believed that there are only two types of photoreceptor cells in our retina, the cones and rod cells described above. In 2002, Berson et al. At Brown University in the United States discovered a third type of photoreceptor cells of the mammalian retina, intrinsic photoreceptor retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC). Such cells have a unique neural connection that connects to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the brain's circadian clock that, along with the pineal gland, is responsible for the regulation of certain types of hormones. Figure 8 also shows the visual and biological channels in the human brain that connect retinal photoreceptors.



Figure 8 light into the human eye after the visual channel and non-visual channel


Such photoreceptor cells can participate in the regulation of many non-visual biological effects of the human body, including changes in human vital signs, hormone secretion and excitement. Currently widely recognized is the light involved in the secretion of human melatonin control, melatonin levels not only affect people's quality of sleep, but also with the inhibition of cancer cell growth. Therefore, a correct understanding of light non-visual biological effects, with a reasonable light environment, color temperature and illumination, contribute to the health and well-being of the human body itself, and vice versa will be detrimental to health.


The discovery of light on human non-visual channel not only provided new research content for lighting science, but also put forward new requirements on the research methods of lighting science. The evaluation of lighting quality gradually doubled from the single visual effect evaluation to the double evaluation of visual effect and non-visual effect. The former emphasizes the visual function and the latter is closely related to human health.

  

Light and circadian rhythms


Light, through this newly discovered photoreceptor cell and a separate nervous system, transmits the signal to the body's biological clock, which in turn adjusts the circadian rhythms in the body's diverse physiological processes, including the daily circadian and seasonal rhythms. Figure 9 shows the circadian rhythms of some typical human biological phenomena, including the human body temperature, the alertness of the human body, the hormone cortisol and melatonin.



Figure 9 circadian rhythms of body temperature, melatonin, cortisol, and human alertness


Hormones Cortisol (stress hormones) and melatonin (sleep hormone) play an important role in controlling the activity and sleep of the human body. Cortisol increases blood sugar levels and provides energy to the body while boosting the body's immune system; however, when hormone cortisol is overly prolonged, the body becomes tired and becomes inefficient.


Morning hormone levels will increase the body's hormones for the human body to prepare for the upcoming daytime activities. Hormone cortisol remained high throughout the day and was reduced to the lowest level at midnight. Sleep hormone levels of melatonin decrease in the early morning to reduce sleep, and increase again as the environment darkens to promote healthy sleep (cortisol is at its lowest level). The circadian rhythm of the human body should not be disrupted too much, which is very important for good health. When the circadian rhythm of the body is disturbed, bright morning light helps restore normal circadian rhythms.


Under natural conditions, light (especially in the early morning light) synchronizes the body's internal clock with the Earth's 24-hour light-dark cycle. Without a regular 24-hour light-dark cycle, the biological clock inside the human body will assume a state of "freewheeling": the "freewheeling" of the "morning" crowd is shorter than 24 hours; and the " Free run "is longer than 24 hours. The average person's "freewheeling" may be between 24 hours and 15 minutes and 24 hours and 30 minutes. The adjustment of the environmental clock, free running time and 24-hour cycle difference, will make the human body temperature, hormone cortisol levels, melatonin levels have a greater deviation every day.


Lack of "normal" bright-dark cycle rhythms can cause disruption to human activity and sleep, which in the end can cause the body to become very active during the night and very sleepy during the day. By the same token, the same symptoms occur when flying on long haul flights across several time zones, namely the lag; the same goes for the three shift workers, which occurs within two days of each flight shift Symptoms.


Light color on the psychological impact


Color and form, often more can affect people's psychological feeling. It is very important for the designer to understand the factors that affect the feeling of light color and how the color sense affects people. In color design, you can consciously use the color sense or avoid adverse color sense, in order to achieve the desired results. In addition, the color of the advancing and retreating, swelling and contraction, visual acuity, eye-catching, well-being, assimilation, area effect and so on with color perception.


Color design has both the rational side, as well as the emotional side. We must not only understand the scientific knowledge of color and reasonable color matching methods, but also understand the power of color to express emotions. Color design is not just for the purpose of transmitting certain information, but more importantly, it stimulates people's emotional response with its unique charm, reaching the purpose of influencing, infecting and making people easy to accept.


Of course, people's feelings about color are complicated due to various factors. From the perspective of countries and regions, due to the differences in terroir, environment, history and culture, and living habits, there are differences in preferences and taboos. Individuals, because of their differences in age, gender, temperament and life experience, will have different preferences and reactions to colors. Even the same person may react differently to different colors of time, environment and mood.


As the times change, the emotional response to color will continue to change, pop color is a clear example. Color design can not but take into account the above differences, but according to the design of the appropriate countermeasures. But this is only the side of things. The other side of the story is that there are many common life experiences for people, so the owners have some common color feelings.


And with the change of society to the information age, the exchange activities of people are more and more frequent and rapid. The mutual influence leads to the tendency of assimilation, and the color emotion is no exception. Not to mention the emotional power of color is also intrinsically linked to its own properties such as wavelength and amplitude. However, the colorful and natural colors have many similarities to people's affections, while Table 2 shows the relationship between emotional associations and psychological feelings in different colors.



Table 2 different colors of emotional associations and psychological feelings


Night landscape and light pollution


Figures 10 to 13 show the astronauts' night view of the Earth from space seen in space. As can be seen from these figures, the more light there are, the more people there are, indicating that the natural environment in these places is suitable for people Habitat. In other words, the more luminous places on earth have a highly modern civilization at night.


Cities in different parts of the globe can be distinguished by different light colors. For example, Figure 11 shows Tokyo, Japan - dominated by colder turquoise than the rest of the world; orange spots along the Tokyo Bay are orange sodium, compared with inland Mostly clean white mercury lamp, metal halide lamp and LED.


Figures 12 and 13 show signs of bright lights running through the city's highways, with more clearly visible winding streets in the city. In economically developed cities, individual cities will merge into brighter spots as the population rapidly expands and cities expand. More roads will connect these cities together to form a bright ribbon structure across all continents.



Figure 10 Earth's night view from space



Figure 11 Night view of Tokyo, Japan as seen from cosmic space



Figure 12 The night view of the city of Las Vegas, seen from cosmic space



Figure 13. Night view of the city with European characteristics as seen from cosmic space


While enjoying the modern lighting, human beings are also constantly undermining the ecological environment on which we depend for existence: a large amount of lighting accelerates the emission of atmospheric carbon dioxide; and the emission of carbon dioxide accelerates the global warming and catastrophic climate Change; and some city managers do not have a strategic vision, that the night the more bright the better, so unscrupulous development of urban lighting, the projection of the invalid light to the sky lighting that is more and more light pollution, further exacerbating the Damage to the environment. Artificial lighting destroyed the beautiful night sky, changing the natural environment.


Especially with the rapid development of urban night lighting, high-power high-intensity discharge lamps are widely used in the construction of night lighting and road lighting, light pollution is more and more serious. Coupled with the neon lights of commercial streets, light boxes advertising and lighting signs, more and more, the scale is also growing, higher and higher brightness, road development and excessive lighting accelerated the development of light pollution.


Light pollution is the phenomenon of sporadic light, reflected light and glare caused by the outdoor lighting of the city at night which cause interference or negative impact on people, animals and plants and the environment. Light pollution can lead to energy waste, and have an impact on people's physical and mental health. In addition, excessive light pollution will seriously damage the ecological environment, and will also have a negative impact on traffic safety and aerospace scientific research.


Due to over lighting and the use of non-energy-saving light sources will result in energy waste. The urgency of low-carbon lighting has been put on the world agenda. China's lighting power consumption of 1433.25-1719.9 billion degrees, two thirds of which is thermal power. Three-fourths of thermal power use coal-fired. According to the electricity produced by one degree of electricity produced by the pollutants of carbon dioxide is 1100 grams, 9 grams of sulfur dioxide calculation, each year to emit 70 million to 90 million tons of carbon dioxide and 600,000 to 700,000 tons of sulfur dioxide. Therefore, light pollution in urban lighting not only consumes too much electricity but also consumes resources and pollutes the natural environment.


Urban landscape lighting and light culture


Landscape lighting content and form


The term "landscape" means "landscape on land", first recorded in 1598 and was introduced as a painting term from the Netherlands to the United Kingdom during the 16th century. The term "landscape" in the Dutch language meant "territory and land" in its earliest stages, but later it had the artistic meaning of "painting depicting land landscapes" when it was introduced to the United Kingdom. According to their inherent attributes, "landscape" can be divided into natural landscape and cultural landscape.


Natural landscape refers to the natural landscape which is affected only indirectly, slightly or occasionally by human beings. Its natural landscape refers to the landscape caused by human activities. It is a complex of natural elements and humanistic elements. City, is one of the most representative human landscape.


During the day, the natural scenery and cultural landscape in the city are exposed by the sunshine; at night, the city's night landscape is achieved by moonlight, stars and lights. According to the currently accepted definition, the city's night lighting refers to the night landscape lighting of all outdoor activities or scenery, except stadiums, construction sites and outdoor safety lighting.


The objects of lighting are the buildings or structures, plazas, roads and bridges, airports, stations and terminals, monuments, landscaping parks, rivers and lakes, commercial streets and advertising signs, as well as urban amenities such as lighting and lighting To remodel, and organically combined into a harmonious and harmonious, beautiful spectacular and characteristic night landscape, in order to show a city or area of night image.


According to the above definition, the content of urban night landscape lighting covers a very wide range of aspects of the visual environment, including:


Holiday Lighting - Use of lights or lighting to create a happy, festive and festive lighting.


Night lighting of buildings - is the nighttime image of buildings or places where lights are used to recreate artificially created, productive, living or other activities for people. Lighting objects are housing buildings, such as memorial buildings, mausoleum buildings, landscape architecture and architectural sketches. Lighting, should be based on the different forms of construction, layout and style of the full reflection of the nature of the building, structure and material characteristics, the style of the times, ethnic style and local characteristics. (Note: Building Night Lighting, also known as the building facade lighting)


Night illumination of structures - Illumination of night scenery of buildings using light. Lighting objects are steles, towers, roads, bridges, tunnels, sewers, canals, reservoirs, mines, chimneys, water towers, reservoirs, gas tanks and so on. In view of the characteristics of the structure is built for a particular purpose, the general people are not internally produced or living characteristics, lighting, in addition to considering the functional requirements of the structure, but also must pay attention to the shape of the structure, and the requirements of the environment and coordination.


Plaza night lighting - according to the functional requirements of different types of squares, through the scientific design, the use of lighting, beautiful shape, simple and lively colors, reasonable cloth lights, and the square to create a unified and harmonious nature of the surrounding environment, beautiful and pleasant lighting .


Road landscape lighting - to ensure the function of road lighting under the premise of the street through the beautiful shape, simple and lively colors, scientific cloth lights, to create a functional and beautiful landscape lighting.


Commercial Street Landscape Lighting - According to the function, nature and category of commercial street, consider the streets, shops, advertisements, signs, municipal facilities (including bus stop, kiosk, plaza, water, fountain, Sketches, etc.) the characteristics of structural elements of lighting, unified planning, well-designed to form a unified and harmonious lighting.


Garden Night Lighting - According to the nature and characteristics of the garden, we plan the illumination of the hard landscape (such as rocks, roads, buildings, water and surface) and the soft landscape (green space, trees and vegetation) , Forming a harmonious and coordinated lighting.


Waterscape Lighting - For the artistic effect of rendering water views, the lighting of natural water features (rivers, waterfalls, seaside waterfront and lakes, etc.) and cultural water features (fountains, stacked water, reservoirs and artificial lakes etc.) are set according to the categories of water features.


Public information lighting - The use of lighting (including landmark lighting, advertising and logo lighting, etc.) as a medium, providing people with public information lighting.


Advertising lighting - to illuminate a variety of advertising lighting, the light used in neon lights, fluorescent lamps, high-intensity discharge lamps and light-emitting diodes.


Illumination of signs or facilities to illuminate messages, patterns, colors that convey information.


Urban night lighting used lighting methods and lighting methods are usually:


Floodlight - A lighting method that typically uses spotlights to illuminate a scene or target, with a much higher intensity of illumination than its surroundings.


Contour lighting - the use of lighting directly outlined the outline of buildings or structures lighting.


Within the transparent lighting - the use of indoor light transmitted outward form the lighting.


Building night illumination method - Light source or lighting and building facades walls, columns, eaves, windows, corner or roof part of the building structure as one of the integrated lighting.


Multivariate spatial three-dimensional lighting law - From the scenic spot or scene three-dimensional environment, the comprehensive utilization of multiple (or more) lighting or methods, attractions and scenery given the best lighting direction, moderate brightness changes, a clear outline And shading, fully demonstrate the three-dimensional characteristics and cultural and artistic connotation of lighting.


Silhouette lighting method - this method is also called the background lighting method, the use of light will be illuminated by the scene and its background from the dark so that the scene, and the formation of clear-cut image of the background lighting.


Cascading Lighting - Illumination of a group of objects outdoors, using several lights, lighting only those parts that are most exciting and interesting, and purposely keeping other parts dark.


"Moonlight" lighting method - This method is also called the moonlight effect lighting method, the moonlight, etc. installed in the tall branches or building structures, or the sky, like the dim moonlight effect, and leaves or other scenes of trees to form lighting on the ground lighting .


Functional lighting method - the use of indoor and outdoor functional lighting (including indoor lighting, advertising signs lights, window lights, site job lighting, street lights, etc.) decorative outdoor night lighting.


Special lighting methods - Use of special lighting fixtures and technologies such as optical fibers, light pipes, sulfur lamps, lasers, LEDs, space light bulbs, projection lamps and flame lights to create night-time lighting.


Light cultural connotation


When it comes to light culture, we first need to understand what culture is. The interpretation of "culture" is divided into broad and narrow sense. In a broad sense, it refers to the sum of material and spiritual wealth created by mankind in social and historical practice. In the narrow sense, it refers to the social ideology and the systems and organizations that are compatible with it mechanism. As an ideological culture, it is a reflection of the politics and economy of a certain society and a function of the politics and economy of a certain society.


The traditional Chinese culture is profound and profound. For thousands of years, it has exerted a profound influence on the development of Chinese society and even the world's culture. Based on its origin, we find that traditional Chinese culture focuses on human beings, but it is not limited to human beings. The "righteousness, righteousness, wisdom and letter" of Confucianism helps us to establish the harmony among people. The Taoist nature of "harmony between nature and man and nature "Guide us to build a harmonious man and nature. The power of culture often lies in its guiding role.

Our discussion of light culture is actually a highly consultative concept. To solve any problem and how to solve it is a pragmatic discussion. Based on the foregoing discussion of culture and light culture, we try to answer these two questions: to discuss light culture, Is to solve the problem of urban lighting. The solution to this problem can not only stay at the technical level of discussion, can not be the number of power and illuminance as a measure, one must have national and regional; two historic heritage, from the understanding of local customs and practices , The historical style of thinking to start lighting to consider the issue of urban lighting planning to have overall harmony.

Second, we must proceed from the people themselves, not from the lighting object. The performance of architecture and landscape structure is of course important, but any design that is lacking in thinking about human beings will be out of touch with reality. Because human beings themselves are subjects of light and culture, Many listen to the user's suggestions and opinions, and truly adhere to the people-oriented lighting design and research is a concrete manifestation of optical culture, and the power and role of optical culture is also reflected in its guidance and help in lighting practice , And ultimately promote social development.